Noise and local air quality are the most significant impacts for local communities. CO2 is alsovital for them, not only in terms of climate change risks, but also the higher costs of reducing CO2 in other sectors if aviation continues to take a larger share of total allowable emissions.
Aviation jobs for local communities should be treated with caution, since these are more subject to fuel price and climate change-related shocks than many other sectors where government policy could encourage employment. In accordance with the ‘polluter pays’ principle, noise and other environmental mitigation should be funded by levies on aviation users. As well as assisting in demand management, such levies should fund sound insulation of buildings, and other compensation, since, of course, constraints on the use of outdoor spaces remain, with implications for health.